Studies for dating couples dating facethejury
Clinical studies also show that abusive marriages are generally preceded by violent dating relationships and are characterized by strategies to control and restrict women’s autonomy .
The relevance of the study of violence in dating relationships is mainly concerned with three aspects: the magnitude and immediate impact on victims, their fragility and vulnerability, and the fact that dating violence can potentiate more serious aggression (such as physical and sexual violence) .
So far, the few available studies have produced somewhat contradictory results.
For instance, Frias and Angel  found that single women reported more victimization than married women, but Brown and Bulanda  obtained higher victimization levels in married partners, both men and women.
A sample of 3,716 participants, aged 15 to 67 years, filled in one attitudinal questionnaire and a self-report instrument on abuse perpetration and victimization.
Attitudinal data revealed a general disapproval of violence use, with greater violence support among males and married participants.
Stets and Straus , however, found lower levels of violence in dating partners but Rouse et al.
 found a similar pattern of results in terms of violence levels in married and dating partners.
The levels of violence found in the latter study  are somewhat higher than those reported in a study of a representative sample of married Portuguese couples, which used the same instruments (26% global perpetration, 12% physical, and 24% emotional) .
However, in the case of dating violence, findings regarding gender effects are mixed and inconclusive.
Whereas early studies reported higher victimization rates for females and higher perpetration rates for males (e.g., ), subsequent national (e.g., [21, 22]) and international research (e.g., [7, 23]) reported similar rates of violence victimization for men and women, or even higher victimization rates among men (e.g., ).
This evidence underscores the need to study the progression from dating violence to marital violence, through developing longitudinal studies that seek to compare evolutionary patterns of violence.
Some authors  have drawn attention to the undeniable relevance of examining theoretical and practical similarities and differences between these types of violence.