Hurricane chris dating
For example, Pfizer’s television advertisement for Zoloft states that “depression is a serious medical condition that may be due to a chemical imbalance”, and that “Zoloft works to correct this imbalance.”Other SSRI advertising campaigns make similar claims.The Effexor website even has a slick video explaining that “research suggests an important link between depression and an imbalance in some of the brain’s chemical messengers.125)In his book, Valenstein clearly and systematically dismantles the chemical imbalance theory: Another problem is that it is not now possible to measure serotonin and norepinephrine in the brains of patients.Estimates of brain neurotransmitters can only be inferred by measuring the biogenic amine breakdown products (metabolites) in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid.The other half come from various organs in the body.
Since reserpine lowered levels of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, and caused the effects observed in animals, it was concluded that depression was a result of low levels of biogenic amines. However, it was later found that reserpine only rarely produces a true clinical depression.In 1953 chemists at Ciba, a pharmaceutical company, isolated the active compound from this herb and called it reserpine.In 1955 researchers at the reported that reserpine reduces the levels of serotonin in the brains of animals.When all of this evidence is taken in full, it should be abundantly clear that depression is not caused by a chemical imbalance.But, as Valenstein shrewdly observes, “there are few rewards waiting for the person who claims that “the emperor is really nude” or who claims that we really do not know what causes depression or why an antidepressant sometimes helps to relieve this condition.”There are several reasons the idea that mental disorders are caused by a chemical imbalance has become so widespread (and none of them have anything to do with the actual scientific evidence, as we have seen).
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As its name implies, monoamine oxydase plays an essential role in inactivating monoamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.