Current problems in dating palaeolithic cave art
Archaeology has much to contribute to the contextual clarification of the later classical and medieval periods as well, and a wealth of data now exists in textbooks and scientific publications.The cut-off period for archaeological investigations in Israel used to be the late medieval period (c.Schumacher in 1885–86, and the Wilderness of Zin survey under T. A new Archaeological Survey of Palestine was initiated in 1937, but very little progress was made.In July 1964 the Society for the Archaeological Survey of Israel was founded.Various techniques of excavation exist and the choice of the techniques employed depends largely on the characteristics of the site being excavated.The first action that is taken in preparation for an excavation at a tell is to lay out a grid-system with iron rods set in cement along a north-south axis across the mound.
Archaeologists dealing with the historic periods, however, are able to rely on a greater variety of artifacts and architectural remains, on the one hand, and on the discovery of written materials (notably inscriptions on durable materials, such as stone or clay tablets, and on ceramic ostraka, and to a lesser extent on organic materials, such as scrolls and papyri made of leather skins and parchment) on the other.The term archaeology is derived from the Greek words archaios ("ancient") and logos ("knowledge, discourse") and was already used in ancient Greek literature in reference to "the study of ancient times." In its modern sense it has come to mean the scientific recovery and systematic study of the material remains of ancient human cultures of prehistoric and historic date.Prehistory refers to that part of human existence that preceded the development of writing.The maps have since become an indispensable tool for all new archaeological surveys, even though the information provided was incomplete and by modern archaeological standards defective (e.g., artificial city mounds – tells – were not regarded by the explorers as sites of any archaeological significance). An important survey of ancient synagogues in Galilee was undertaken in 1905–7 by H. Until World War , surveys conducted in Palestine were fairly basic in terms of the field methodologies and the means of dating that were employed.Subsequently, the Survey of Eastern Palestine was made in 1881–82 and then discontinued, the Arabah Survey in 1883–84, surveys east of the Jordan by G. A "Schedule of Historical Maps and Sites" was prepared and updated by the Palestine Department of Antiquities at regular intervals from the 1920s.