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Outside Italy it is first found in England (in a charter of 676) and shortly afterward in Spain and Gaul.
It was not quickly adopted in royal diplomas and other solemn documents, however, and in the papal chancery it did not replace the indiction until the time of John XIII (965–972).
The ), marking the completion of the Roman conquest of Spain.There is, however, a consensus among workers in the field that 8 Rabīʿ I was the day of the Hijrah, that ʿUmar instituted the use of the date for the new era, and that this was done in 17.The choice of the Hijrah as the beginning of the epoch has two reasons.According to the most reliable authorities, it was ʿUmar I, the second caliph (reigned 634–644), who introduced the era used by the Muslim world.When his attention was drawn by Abū Mūsā al-Ashʿarī to the fact that his letters were not dated, ʿUmar consulted with men at Medina and then ordered that the year of the Hijrah (Hegira), the Prophet’s flight from Mecca to Medina, be taken as the beginning of an era for the Muslim state and community.
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According to some sources, the Hijrah date was first used by Yaʿlā ibn Umayyah, Abū Bakr’s governor in Yemen.